The overjustification effect is a psychological phenomenon that occurs when an individual’s intrinsic motivation for a particular activity decreases as a result of receiving extrinsic rewards, such as money or praise, for that same activity. In other words, individuals may become less motivated to engage in an activity for its inherent enjoyment or satisfaction when they are rewarded for doing so. This concept was first introduced by Edward Deci in 1971, and has since become an important area of study in the fields of motivation, education, and behavioral science.
The overjustification effect can be explained by the self-determination theory, which suggests that intrinsic motivation is driven by three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. When an external reward is introduced, individuals may perceive a loss of autonomy in their decision to engage in the activity, as they may now attribute their motivation to the external reward rather than their own interest or enjoyment. This perceived loss of autonomy can undermine intrinsic motivation, leading individuals to engage in the activity less frequently or with less enthusiasm once the reward is removed.
Several factors can influence the strength and occurrence of the overjustification effect, including:
- Type of Reward: Tangible rewards, such as money or gifts, are more likely to produce the overjustification effect than intangible rewards, such as praise or recognition.
- Contingency: The overjustification effect is more likely to occur when rewards are contingent on specific actions or outcomes, rather than provided unconditionally.
- Perceived Control: The overjustification effect is less likely to occur when individuals perceive the reward as a result of their own efforts and achievements, rather than as a means of controlling their behavior.
To mitigate the overjustification effect and maintain intrinsic motivation, it is important to consider the following strategies:
- Use rewards judiciously: Limit the use of extrinsic rewards and focus on fostering intrinsic motivation through activities that are inherently enjoyable, challenging, and meaningful.
- Provide informational feedback: When providing rewards, emphasize the individual’s achievements and competence to reinforce their sense of autonomy and self-efficacy.
- Focus on non-contingent rewards: Offer rewards that are not tied to specific actions or outcomes, such as providing praise or recognition for effort, growth, or overall performance.
Understanding the overjustification effect is essential for educators, employers, and policymakers seeking to create environments that effectively motivate and engage individuals, promote long-term learning and growth, and foster personal and professional satisfaction.