Observer bias is a phenomenon in which the expectations or preconceptions of the observer can influence the results of an experiment or study. This can happen when the observer’s expectations about the outcome of the experiment affect how they collect, interpret, or report the data. For example, if a researcher expects a particular treatment to be effective, they may be more likely to notice and record positive results from that treatment, and may be less likely to notice or record negative results. Observer bias can lead to inaccurate or misleading results, and can affect the validity of research findings. To avoid observer bias, it is important for researchers to be aware of their own expectations and to take steps to ensure that their observations are objective and unbiased. This can include using standardized procedures for collecting and analyzing data, and involving multiple observers to check for consistency.