What is expectation bias?
Expectation bias is a phenomenon in which people’s expectations about the outcome of an event or experiment can influence the results of that event or experiment. This can happen when people’s expectations about the outcome affect how they perceive or interpret the information that is presented to them. For example, if you expect a particular treatment to be effective, you may be more likely to notice and remember positive results from that treatment, and may be less likely to notice or remember negative results. Expectation bias can lead to inaccurate or misleading results, and can affect the validity of research findings. To avoid expectation bias, it is important to be aware of our own expectations and to take steps to ensure that our observations are objective and unbiased. This can include using standardized procedures for collecting and analyzing data, and involving multiple observers to check for consistency.
What is example of expectation bias?
Expectation bias is a cognitive bias where a researcher’s expectations or beliefs about a study influence the outcome of the study. Here’s an example to illustrate:
Suppose a researcher is investigating the effectiveness of a new medication for a certain condition. The researcher expects the medication to be effective, and therefore unconsciously treats patients who receive the medication differently than those who receive a placebo. The researcher may pay closer attention to positive changes in the patients who receive the medication, leading to a biased interpretation of the results.
Alternatively, the researcher may unintentionally convey their expectations to the patients, who may also experience a placebo effect, where they feel better because they believe they are receiving a medication that will help them.
In either case, the researcher’s expectations or beliefs about the medication’s effectiveness have influenced the outcome of the study, which can lead to incorrect conclusions or overestimation of the treatment’s effectiveness.
What is an example of expectation bias in aviation?
An example of expectation bias in aviation could occur during an approach and landing. If a pilot expects the runway to be clear and in good condition, they may unconsciously overlook potential hazards or obstacles on the runway, such as debris or wildlife. This could lead to a dangerous situation, such as a runway excursion or collision. On the other hand, if the pilot expects the runway to be potentially hazardous, they may be more alert and vigilant in looking for any potential hazards or obstacles.This expectation bias can be dangerous as it can lead to complacency and a failure to identify and respond to potential hazards in the aviation environment. Therefore, it is important for pilots to remain vigilant and attentive to potential hazards and risks, regardless of their expectations or beliefs about the aviation environment.
What is expectancy bias (also known as the observer-expectancy effect) in psychology?
Expectancy bias, also known as the observer-expectancy effect, is a cognitive bias in psychology where a person’s expectations or beliefs about a situation or individual can influence their perception, interpretation, and behavior.
For example, if a teacher believes that a student is highly intelligent, they may unconsciously provide more opportunities for that student to succeed and offer more positive feedback, leading to the student performing better than their peers. On the other hand, if a teacher believes that a student is not intelligent, they may unconsciously provide fewer opportunities and less positive feedback, leading to the student performing worse than their peers.
Expectancy bias can occur in various contexts, including research studies, clinical assessments, and interpersonal interactions. It can lead to biased interpretations of information, inaccurate judgments, and perpetuation of stereotypes and prejudices.
To reduce the impact of expectancy bias, it is important to remain open-minded, impartial, and objective, and to base evaluations and judgments on objective criteria and evidence, rather than preconceived notions or biases.
What is expectation bias in hiring?
Expectation bias in hiring is a type of cognitive bias that occurs when recruiters or hiring managers have preconceived notions or expectations about certain candidates or groups of candidates, which can influence their evaluation and selection process.
For example, if a hiring manager has a preconceived expectation that candidates from Ivy League schools are more qualified and competent, they may give these candidates preferential treatment during the hiring process, even if other candidates have better qualifications or experience. This can lead to a less diverse and less qualified workforce, as well as missed opportunities to identify talented candidates who do not fit the hiring manager’s expectations or biases.
To reduce the impact of expectation bias in hiring, recruiters and hiring managers should strive to be objective, fair, and consistent in their evaluation and selection process. They should focus on the candidate’s qualifications, skills, and experience, rather than personal characteristics or affiliations. Additionally, using structured interviews, blind resume screening, and diverse hiring panels can also help to reduce the impact of expectation bias in the hiring process.