What is Boundary Extension?
Boundary extension is a cognitive bias in visual perception and memory, where people tend to remember having seen a more extensive portion of a scene than was actually viewed. In simpler terms, the viewer remembers beyond the edges of an image or visual scene. This mental phenomenon was first identified by Helene Intraub and Mary Richardson in 1989 and is considered to be a universal aspect of human visual perception.
Key Features of Boundary Extension
The fundamental element of boundary extension is the systematic distortion of memory. Despite its misleading nature, this isn’t an error in memory but rather a feature of our perceptual system, aiming to provide a continuous understanding of the world around us.
Not Confined to Photographs
While it’s often studied using still images or photographs, boundary extension also occurs with mental images and even during eye blinks or visual interruptions.
Boundary extension happens across ages and cultures, indicating it is an integral part of human visual perception and memory.
Implications of Boundary Extension
Boundary extension plays a crucial role in how we perceive, remember, and anticipate the visual world. This cognitive bias allows us to create a more continuous and stable representation of our surroundings. It helps us connect fragmented visual experiences into a coherent whole and provides an expectation of what lies outside our immediate field of view. This sense of continuity can be especially beneficial in navigating or understanding our environment.
Factors Influencing Boundary Extension
Boundary extension becomes more prominent during visual interruptions, such as eye blinks or when an image is only briefly viewed.
The extent of boundary extension can be influenced by the perceived distance to the scene. Images that appear closer or more zoomed in generally lead to greater boundary extension.
The content of an image can also impact the degree of boundary extension. More familiar or predictable scenes might induce stronger boundary extension, as the viewer’s brain fills in anticipated details beyond the image boundaries.
Research on Boundary Extension
Research into boundary extension aims to understand the underlying cognitive and neural processes behind this phenomenon. Studies typically involve participants viewing an image followed by a brief mask, then being presented with the same image, a more zoomed-in version, or a more zoomed-out version. Participants often misremember the original image as being more zoomed out than it was, illustrating the boundary extension effect.
Role of Boundary Extension in Everyday Life
Boundary extension plays a pivotal role in our daily life. It can be particularly pronounced when we are in new environments, where we tend to create mental maps that go beyond our immediate view. For example, when navigating through a new city, boundary extension might aid in understanding the broader layout. However, it’s essential to be aware of this cognitive bias in situations where precise recall of visual details is required, such as eye-witness accounts or detailed observations.