What Is ADHD In Neuroscience

What is ADHD?

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that interferes with daily functioning and development. ADHD symptoms typically appear in early childhood, and while they may decrease in severity over time, they often persist into adulthood. The exact cause of ADHD is not yet fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors. Diagnosis of ADHD is based on a comprehensive evaluation, including clinical interviews, behavioral observations, and standardized rating scales. Treatment options for ADHD include a combination of behavioral therapy, psychoeducation, and medication, such as stimulants or non-stimulants, to manage symptoms and improve overall functioning.

Examples of ADHD

  • Inattention

    Children with ADHD often have difficulty paying attention to details, sustaining attention during tasks or play activities, and following through on instructions. They may also be forgetful in daily activities and easily distracted by extraneous stimuli. Inattention can lead to poor academic performance, disorganization, and difficulties in completing tasks.

  • Hyperactivity

    Hyperactivity in ADHD can manifest as excessive fidgeting, running or climbing inappropriately, and having trouble engaging in quiet leisure activities. Children with ADHD may also talk excessively and frequently interrupt others. Hyperactivity can lead to social difficulties, as it may be perceived as disruptive or inappropriate by peers and adults.

  • Impulsivity

    Impulsivity in ADHD is characterized by hasty actions without considering the consequences, difficulty waiting for turns, and interrupting or intruding on others. Impulsive behaviors can result in accidents, poor decision-making, and difficulties in social interactions due to a lack of self-control and patience.

Related Neuroscience Terms